The Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) Skeleton at Dubai Mall, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

The complete skeleton of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 08.04.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13873545204/

The complete skeleton of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa.

Article Reference: 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). The Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) Skeleton at Dubai Mall, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 120, December 2014. pp. 1-29. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-dinosaur.webs.com/sauropod-dubai-mall

The skeleton of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 12.03.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13963351962/

A huge Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) skeleton is exhibited at the main lobby Grand Atrium of Dubai Mall, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

I studied the skeleton on 12.03.2014, 20.03.2014, 08.04.2014 & 13.04.2014.

The body trunk bones of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) at The Dubai Mall. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 12.03.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13969795115/

The Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur skeleton is over 155 million years old, and is 24.4 meters (80 feet) long and 7.6 metres (25 feet) high and was a young adult female about 25 years old.

This dinosaur belongs to the family Diplodocidae, derived from the Greek words diplos (double) and dokos (beam). The name Diplodocidae refers to the bones resembling two beams located under its tail. These bones helped the dinosaur to lift its mighty tail (The Dubai Mall, 2014). Amphicoelias is derived from the Greek words amphi (on both sides) and koilos (hollow). It refers to the thin vertebral walls the dinosaur needed to support its enormous weight (The Dubai Mall, 2014).

Dubai-based developer Emaar unveiled the attraction on 10.03.2014, and a dedicated onsite team will be sharing insights with visitors.

The prehistoric dinosaur remains are from the late Jurassic period and belong to the species Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus, characterised by an endless whip-like tail, long slender neck and small head. Nearly 90 per cent of the fossil’s bones were found intact at the excavation site. Almost all 360 unearthed bones were complete and in good condition. Its tail bones were found broken, either ferociously bitten by a predator, or through battle trauma from a tail fight.

Hind legs and tail fossil bones of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 12.03.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13966868912/

The hind left foot fossil bones of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 13.04.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13873791825/

The remains of the adult female dinosaur were discovered in a sleeping position in 2008 at the Dana Quarry in the US state of Wyoming. It was excavated over a period of 2 years. She died during a drought at the Dana Quarry, as it was a natural trap for predators and prey. The dinosaur exhibit was air-freighted from the US to its new home at The Dubai Mall.

This “Sleeping Beauty” Sauropod Dinosaur was as heavy as five elephants and herbivore. Its long neck helped it to swing side-to-side fast and to reach tree tops for food. It simply gulped down whole branches and leaves without chewing. It stood as tall as five people stacked up and stretched as long as five cars bumper to bumper. Very little blood supply was needed to its tiny brain. Blood pumped up every 10 minutes was good enough.

“No comparable exhibit, with nearly all bones completing the skeleton, exists elsewhere. Yes, the dinosaur before you is as real as it gets and complete,” it says in a special Dubai Mall leaflet.

The specimen was previously displayed at the Houston Museum of Natural Science in the US state of Texas. It was sourced through Khalid Seddiq, founder of Etihad Modern Art Gallery in Abu Dhabi (Masudi, 2014).

Pelvis and tail fossil bones of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 08.04.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13874358704/

The exhibit was assembled by a team of paleontologists (fossil scientists). The dinosaur is said to be the first fossil bone mounted in an upright position and all the bones on exhibit come from the same individual.

Monday’s 10.03.2014 unveiling — by the removal of huge black curtains — drew dozens of dazzled onlookers snapping pictures. Also present were Raimund Albersdörfer, a German paleontologist who has chronicled the features of the exhibit and who named the Sauropod species (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) and Joel Bartsch, president and CEO of the Houston Museum of Natural Science.

Natalie Bogdanova, Senior Director, Business Development & Operations, Emaar Malls Group, said: “The largest creatures to walk on earth, dinosaurs have been popularised through novels and films. Now, for the first time in Dubai, visitors to The Dubai Mall have the opportunity to witness the mind-blowing magnificence of a life-size dinosaur exhibit, which also has the distinction of being the only one of its kind in the world”. “The new exhibit is educational, awe-inspiring, and yet another definitive reason to visit our city and the mall.” She added: “In addition to the dinosaur exhibit, visitors will have the opportunity to have a closer look at the fossil’s structure through a one-metre-long original bone on display” (Masudi, 2014). “The exhibition will significantly scale up the mall footfall, given the keen interest of dinosaur enthusiasts from around the world, and the unparalleled experience it provides to the visitors.”

Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa infront of the Long-necked whip-tailed Sauropod (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) skeleton at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. The skeleton is over 155 million years old and is 24.4 meters long and 7.6 meter high. It was discovered in 2008 at the Dana Quarry in Wyoming, USA. 12.03.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13887132635/

The development follows unofficial reports that surfaced in February claiming Emaar planned to exhibit a dinosaur skeleton at its Dubai Mall property. Emaar had not publicly commented on the then-unconfirmed reports. According to the reports, carried by multiple media outlets and on Twitter, Emaar purchased the skeleton reportedly for millions of dirhams for a permanent exhibit at the mall (Masudi, 2014).

The exhibit is open to free public viewing at the mall’s Grand Atrium and a naming contest is to decide what the female giant will be called.

Registration for the free-to-enter contest can be made through facebook.com/TheDubaiMall, twitter.com/thedubaimall, or instagram.com/thedubaimall. Suggestions can be posted using the hashtag #NameTDMDino.

The winner will receive a five-day/six-night trip for four people — two adults and two children under the age of 12 each — to visit Jurassic Park at Universal Studios, Orlando, USA (Masudi, 2014).

A 155 million years old Humerus (upper arm) bone from the skeleton of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod which was discovered in 2008 at the Dana Quarry in Wyoming, USA and is displayed at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf-von Jaffa. 12.03.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13862270615/

Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer 2010 (Sauropod):

Amniota - Dinosauria

Sister taxon: Amphicoelias altus

Type specimen: DQ-BS, a partial skeleton. Its type locality is Dana Quarry, which is in an Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian fine channel fill mudstone in the Morrison Formation of Wyoming, USA.

Ecology: ground dwelling herbivore.

Average measurements (in mm): coracoid 460.0 x 355.0, femur length 1415.0, fibula length 1095.0, humerus length 905.0, radius length 715.0, scapula 1150.0 x 510.0, skull 331.0 x 119.8, tibia length 1015.0, ulna length 755.0.

Estimated body mass: 12.1 tons based on femur length.

Age range: 161.2 to 150.8 Ma (Million years).

Distribution: found only at Dana Quarry, Wyoming, USA. (Fossilworks).

The skeleton of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 12.03.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13967051831/

Front legs bones of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 13.04.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13874054015/

Amphicoelias

Amphicoelias (/ˌæmfɨˈsliəs/, meaning "biconcave", from the Greek αμφι, amphi: "on both sides", and κοιλος, koilos: "hollow, concave") is a genus of herbivorous sauropod dinosaur that includes what may be the largest dinosaur ever discovered, Amphicoelias fragillimus. Based on surviving descriptions of a single fossil bone, Amphicoelias fragillimus may have been the longest known vertebrate at 40 to 60 metres (130 to 200 feet) in length, and may have had a mass of up to 122 tonnes (135 short tons). However, because the only fossil remains were lost at some point after being studied and described in the 1870s, evidence survives only in drawings and field notes. The fossil was found in the Morrison Formation which is a distinctive sequence of Upper Jurassic sedimentary rock that is found in the western United States of America, and it has been the most fertile source of dinosaur fossils in North America. It is composed of mudstonesandstonesiltstone and limestone and is light grey, greenish gray, or red. Most of the fossils occur in the green siltstone beds and lower sandstones, relics of the rivers and floodplains of the Jurassic period (Wikipedia).

Head and Neck Fossil Bones of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 13.04.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13873730403/

Head and Neck Fossil Bones of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 12.03.2014. 

https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13951169882/

Description

The type species of AmphicoeliasAmphicoelias altus, was named by paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope in December 1877 (though not published until 1878) for an incomplete skeleton consisting of two vertebrae, a pubis (hip bone), and a femur (upper leg bone). Cope also named a second species, Amphicoelias latus, in the same paper. However, all subsequent researchers have considered Amphicoelias latus to be a synonym of Amphicoelias altus. In 1921, Osborn and Mook assigned additional bones to Amphicoelias altus—a scapula (shoulder blade), a coracoid (shoulder bone), an ulna (lower arm bone), and a tooth. Henry Fairfield Osborn and Charles Craig Mook noted the overall close similarity between Amphicoelias and Diplodocus, as well as a few key differences, such as proportionally longer forelimbs in Amphicoelias than in Diplodocus. The femur of Amphicoelias is unusually long, slender, and round in cross section; while this roundness was once thought to be another distinguishing characteristic of Amphicoelias, it has since been found in some specimens of Diplodocus as well. A. altus was also similar in size to Diplodocus, estimated to be about 25 metres (82 feet) long. While most scientists have used these details to distinguish Amphicoelias and Diplodocus as separate genera, at least one has suggested that Amphicoelias is probably the senior synonym of Diplodocus (Wikipedia).

The skeleton of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 12.03.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13970779904/

The body trunk bones of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) at The Dubai Mall. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 08.04.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13873389153/

The third named Amphicoelias species, Amphicoelias fragillimus, is known only from a single, incomplete 1.5 m tall neural arch (the part of a vertebra with spines and processes), either last or second to last in the series of back vertebrae, D (dorsal) 10 or D9, that would have measured 2.7 metres (8.8 feet) long in life. In addition to this single vertebra, Cope's field notes contain an entry for an "[i]mmense distal end of femur”, located only a few tens of meters away from the giant vertebra. It is likely that this undescribed leg bone belonged to the same individual animal as the neural spine (Wikipedia).

In 2010, a monograph was made available, but not formally published, by Henry Galiano and Raimund Albersdörfer in which they referred a fourth species to Amphicoelias, as "Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus" based on several complete specimens found in the Dana Quarry of Big Horn Basin, Wyoming, USA and held in a private collection. The specific name referred to their hypothesis based on these specimens that nearly all Morrison diplodocid species are either growth stages or represent sexual dimorphism among members of the genus Amphicoelias, but this analysis has been met with skepticism and the publication itself has been disclaimed by its lead author, explaining that it is "obviously a drafted manuscript complete with typos, etc., and not a final paper. In fact, no printing or distribution has been attempted" (Wikipedia).

Classification Info: The Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) at The Dubai Mall. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 08.04.2014.

https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13887425984/

Classification Info: The Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) at The Dubai Mall. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 08.04.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13986713443/

Classification

Edward Drinker Cope described his finds in two 1878 issues of the American Naturalist, and assigned them to the new genus Amphicoelias. He placed it in a unique family, Amphicoeliidae, though this is now considered a nomen oblitum (forgotten name). The genus is usually assigned to the family Diplodocidae, though some modern analyses have found it at the base of the larger group Diplodocoidea or as a diplodocid incertae sedis (uncertain placement). The first named species in the genus, Amphicoelias altus (holotype specimen AMHD 5764), was discovered by Cope in 1877. But while it is only represented by a partial skeleton, there are enough diagnostic characteristics to provisionally define the genus. Amphicoelias altus is known from better remains, but is smaller than Amphicoelias fragillimus. Cope also named a third species in 1878: Amphicoelias latus (Wikipedia).

Osborn and Mook, in 1921, provisionally synonymized the three species, sinking Amphicoelias latus into Amphicoelias altus, and suggesting also that Amphicoelias fragillimus is just a very large individual of Amphicoelias altus, a position McIntosh agreed with in 1998. Carpenter (2006) disagreed about the synonymy of Amphicoelias altus and Amphicoelias fragillimus, however, citing numerous differences in the construction of the vertebra also noted by Cope, and suggested these differences are enough to warrant a separate species or even a separate genus for Amphicoelias fragillimus. However, he went on to caution that the validity of Amphicoelias fragillimus as a separate species is nearly impossible to determine without the original specimen to study (Wikipedia).

In 2007, John Foster suggested that the differences usually cited to differentiate Amphicoelias altus from the more well-known Diplodocus are not significant and may be due to individual variation. Foster argued that Amphicoelias is probably the senior synonym of Diplodocus, and that if further research bears this out, the familiar name Diplodocus would need to be abandoned in favor of Amphicoelias, as was the case with Brontosaurus and its senior synonym Apatosaurus (Wikipedia).

The skeleton of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 12.03.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13967092904/

The Hind legs of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 12.03.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13970838434/

Paleobiology

In his 2006 re-evaluation, Carpenter examined the paleobiology of giant sauropods, including Amphicoelias, and addresses the question of why this group attained such a huge size. He pointed out that gigantic sizes were reached early in sauropod evolution, with very large sized species present as early as the late Triassic Period, and concluded that whatever evolutionary pressure caused large size was present from the early origins of the group. Carpenter cited several studies of giant mammalian herbivores, such as elephants and rhinoceros, which showed that larger size in plant-eating animals leads to greater efficiency in digesting food. Since larger animals have longer digestive systems, food is kept in digestion for significantly longer periods of time, allowing large animals to survive on lower-quality food sources. This is especially true of animals with a large number of 'fermentation chambers' along the intestine which allow microbes to accumulate and ferment plant material, aiding digestion (Wikipedia).

The body bones of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 12.03.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13966937012/

The Skeleton of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 12.03.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13970486655/

Throughout their evolutionary history, sauropod dinosaurs were found primarily in semi-arid, seasonally dry environments, with a corresponding seasonal drop in the quality of food during the dry season. The environment of Amphicoelias was essentially a savanna, similar to the arid environments in which modern giant herbivores are found, supporting the idea that poor-quality food in an arid environment promotes the evolution of giant herbivores. Carpenter argued that other benefits of large size, such as relative immunity from predators, lower energy expenditure, and longer life span, are probably secondary advantages (Wikipedia).

The Morrison Formation environment in which Amphicoelias lived would have resembled a modern savanna, though since grass did not appear until the Late Cretaceousferns were probably the dominant plant and main food source for Amphicoelias. Though Engelmann et al. (2004) dismissed ferns as a sauropod food source due to their relatively low caloric content; Carpenter argued that the sauropod digestive system, well adapted to handle low-quality food, allows for the consumption of ferns as a large part of the sauropod diet. Carpenter also noted that the occasional presence of large petrified logs indicate the presence of 20–30 metres (65–100 feet) tall trees, which would seem to conflict with the savanna comparison. However, the trees are rare, and since tall trees require more water than the savanna environment could generally provide, they probably existed in narrow tracts or "gallery forests" along rivers and gullies where water could accumulate. Carpenter speculated that giant herbivores like Amphicoelias may have used the shade of the gallery forests to stay cool during the day, and done most of their feeding on the open savanna at night (Wikipedia).

Hind legs and tail fossil bones of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa.

Hind legs bones of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 12.03.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13966704111/

Hind legs bones of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 08.04.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13897551603/

References and Internet Websites

Amphicoelias “brontodiplodocus” Galiano and Albersdörfer (2010). pp. 60. http://dinosauriainternational.com/downloads/Brontodiplo_2011.pdf 

Calambokidis, J. and G. Steiger (1998). Blue Whales. Voyageur Press. ISBN 0-89658-338-4

Carpenter, K. (2006). Biggest of the big: a critical re-evaluation of the mega-sauropod Amphicoelias fragillimus. In Foster, J.R. and Lucas, S.G., eds., 2006, Paleontology and Geology of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 36: 131–138. 

Cope, Edward Drinker (1878). A new species of AmphicoeliasAmerican Naturalist 12(8): 563–564. doi:10.1086/272176. Archived from the original on October 25, 2009. 

Cope, E.D. (1878). On the Vertebrata of the Dakota Epoch of Colorado. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 17: 233–247. Dinosauria International. http://www.dinosauriainternational.com/content/about%20us.html 

Engelmann, G.F., Chure, D.J., and Fiorillo, A.R. (2004). The implications of a dry climate for the paleoecology of the fauna of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. In Turner, C.E., Peterson, F., and Dunagan, S.P., eds., Reconstruction of the extinct ecosystem of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation: Sedimentary Geology, 167: 297–308.

Fossilworks. †Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer 2010 (sauropod). http://fossilworks.org/?a=taxonInfo&taxon_no=231023 

Foster, J. (2007). Appendix. Jurassic West: The Dinosaurs of the Morrison Formation and Their World. Indiana University Press. pp. 327–329. 

Foster, J. (2007). Jurassic West: The Dinosaurs of the Morrison Formation and Their World. Indiana University Press. 

Galiano, H. and R. Albersdörfer 2010. http://paleobiodb.org/cgi-bin/bridge.pl?a=displayReference&reference_no=41030 

Galiano, H. and R. Albersdörfer (2010). A New Basal Diplodocoid Species, Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus from the Morrison Formation, Big Horn Basin, Wyoming, with Taxonomic Reevaluation of Diplodocus, Apatosaurus, Barosaurus and Other Genera. Dinosauria International (Ten Sleep, WY) Report for September 2010. pp. 60. ISBN 978-0-9830585-0-2. http://www.dinosauriainternational.com/downloads/Amphicoelias.pdf

The complete skeleton of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 13.04.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13873595473/

Dinosaur Poster at The Dubai Mall. Photo by the Author. 21.03.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13977997914/

The skeleton of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa.

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie’t Al-Talawon fi Al-Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1983). Sea Snakes in Kuwait. Bulletin of the Biological Studies Club, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year, Number 4, 7.12.1983. pp. 1-5. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1987). On a Collection of Devon Period Animal Fossils from the Saarland, in the Geologische Museum Saarberg in Saarbrücken, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 15, Fifth Year, Thul Qi’dah 1407 AH, July 1987 AD. pp. 9-10.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). Die Dinosaurier Ausstellung im Museum Alexander Koenig in Bonn, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 27, Tenth Year, April 1992. pp. 1-8. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae’q Al-Nouma’n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (in Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). Palestinian Ornithomimid Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, Jerusalem. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Environmental Affairs 2 and Dinosaurs. www.gazelle.8m.net/custom3.html

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). Palestinian Legged Snake Fossil from Ein Yabrud, north of Jerusalem. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Fossils and Zoos. http://gazelle.8m.net/shopping_page.html

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (Gründer) (seit Juli 2001). Dinosaurier Club Yahoo Group. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Dinosaurierclub/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten / Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition), August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/

My beloved wife Ola Khalaf is taking pictures of me for the “National Geographic Al-Arabiya” Magazine infront of the Dubai Mall Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) ... Photo by my beloved daughter Nora Khalaf. 20.03.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13898309874/

Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa and his daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf infront of the Long-necked whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) skeleton at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. The skeleton is over 155 million years old and is 24.4 meters long and 7.6 meter high. It was discovered in 2008 at the Dana Quarry in Wyoming, USA. 08.04.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13862470044/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). The Reptiles in the Arabia’s Wildlife Centre in the Sharjah Desert Park, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 34, 22nd Year, August 2004. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 1-8.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980 - 2005. Erste Auflage, August 2005: 376 Seiten. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Aquatica_Arabica.html

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Ornithomimid Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Jerusalem, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 56, Twenty-fourth Year, August 2006, Rajab 1427 H. pp. 1-7. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://de.dir.groups.yahoo.com/group/Dinosaurier_Club/message/183

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Eine Persönlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palästina / A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine: Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 56, Twenty-fourth Year, August 2006. pp. 8-18. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Bassam_Khalaf.html

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth Year, September 2007 CE, Sha’ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/ 
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm 
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Ornithomimid Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Jerusalem, Palestine. In: Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. pp. 79-88. Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Dinosaur Tracks at Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Youtube Video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KEtF3FUegOQ

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). The Ceratosaur Dinosaur Elaphrosaurus bambergi Janensch, 1920 Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 117, September 2014, Thu Al-Qi’da 1435 AH. pp. 1-33. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-dinosaur.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). The Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) Skeleton at Dubai Mall, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 120, December 2014. pp. 1-29. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-dinosaur.webs.com/sauropod-dubai-mall

Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa infront of the Long-necked whip-tailed Sauropod (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) skeleton at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. 12.03.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13966794181/

Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa infront of the Long-necked whip-tailed Sauropod (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) skeleton at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. 12.03.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13967351041/

Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa and his daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf and an Emaar Staff infront of the Long-necked whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) skeleton at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE.

Masudi, Faisal (Staff Reporter) (2014). Giant dinosaur skeleton unveiled at The Dubai Mall. Gulf News. 11.03.2014. http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/uae/general/giant-dinosaur-skeleton-unveiled-at-the-dubai-mall-1.1302548 

McIntosh, J.S. (1998). New information about the Cope collection of sauropods from Garden Park, Colorado. In Carpenter, K., Chure, D. and Kirkland, J.I., eds., The Morrison Formation: an interdisciplinary study: Modern Geology, 23: 481–506. 

Osborn, H.F., and Mook, C. C. (1921). CamarasaurusAmphicoelias and other sauropods of Cope. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History NS, 3(3): 249–387. 

Paul, G.S. (1994). Big sauropods — really, really big sauropods. The Dinosaur Report, The Dinosaur Society, Fall, p. 12–13.

Red Orbit. Diplodocus. http://www.redorbit.com/education/reference_library/animal_kingdom/dinosauria/1112390163/diplodocus/ 

Taylor, Mike (2010). The Elephant in the living room: Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus (07.10.2010). http://svpow.com/2010/10/07/the-elephant-in-the-living-room-amphicoelias-brontodiplodocus/ 

The Dubai Mall Dinosaur Exhibit (2014). http://www.thedubaimall.com/en/Entertain/The-Dubai-Mall-Dinosaur.aspx 

The Dubai Mall Leaflet (2014). Where Has She Been For The Last 155 Million Years ?. 

Turner, C.E., and Peterson, F. (1999). Biostratigraphy of dinosaurs in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of the Western Interior, U.S.A. In: Gillette, D., ed., Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah: Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication, 99(1): 77–114. 

Vergano, Dan (2010) Dinosaur discoveries shake up sauropod story. USA TODAY (2010). http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/tech/science/columnist/vergano/2010-10-08-dinosaur-debate_N.htm?csp=Tech 

Wedel, M. (2008). SV-POW showdown: sauropods vs whales." Sauropod Vertebra Picture of the Week. 20 May 2008. 

Wikipedia. Amphicoelias. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphicoelias 

Wilson, J.A., and Smith, M. (1996). New remains of Amphicoelias Cope (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) from the Upper Jurassic of Montana and diplodocoid phylogeny. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 16(3 Suppl.): 73A.

The skeleton of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa.

The skeleton of the Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) at Dubai Mall, Dubai, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 08.04.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13890085613/